Classification essay birds

It is a hierarchical system -- that is, each organism belongs to a series of ranked taxonomic categories, such as a subspecies, species, genus, family, etc. At any rank level in the hierarchy any organism can belong to only one taxon, or taxonomic group. For instance, the Yellow-rumped Warbler can be a member of only one genus and one class.

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Each taxon is given a formal, latinized name that is recognized by scientists around the world. Nomenclature is a formal system of names used to label taxonomic groups. Birds compose the class Aves, which is in the phylum Chordata Chordata also includes mammals, reptiles, fishes, and tunicates -- everything with an internal skeletal rod called a "notochord," which in vertebrates is enclosed in cartilage or within a backbone. The living nonfossil members of the class Aves are placed into more than two dozen orders, such as the Passeriformes perching birds , Piciformes woodpeckers, etc.

The orders are divided into about families -- an average families per order. Family names can be recognized because they all end in "idae.

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Families, in turn, are divided into subfamilies, with names ending in "inae. Within subfamilies, tribes name ending "ini" are often recognized: blackbirds are the Agelaiini and orioles the Icterini within the Icterinae. The next commonly used category is the genus: the Yellow-rumped Warbler is in the genus Dendroica, along with more than two dozen very similar species. Its latinized specific name is Dendroica coronata, made up of the name of the genus combined with a trivial name to distinguish it from congeners other members of the same genus.

Because the Linnean system features a two-part specific name, it is often referred to as a system of "binomial nomenclature. Traditionally, generic and specific names are set in italic type, and in some works the name of the author is put in parentheses if he or she originally placed the species in a different genus. Thus if you find the Yellow-rumped Warbler listed as Dendroica coronata Linnaeus , it is because Linnaeus originally placed it in the genus Motacilla, not Dendroica.


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They are altricial, but the female invests in a nutrient-rich egg just like females of precocial species. Parrots are among the most intelligent of birds; they have adopted the same evolutionary strategy as we have. People like other primates, elephants, and antelopes, but unlike rodents and marsupials are precocial-born with hair, open eyes, and large brains.

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But our brains and those of parrots, both large at birth, also grow a great deal after birth as a result of large parental investments of food energy. Thus a complex evolutionary problem of balancing the need to provide nourishment to the young and to protect them from predation has been.

Similar problems have been solved, also in diverse ways, in the course of mammalian evolution. But many more groups of mammals than birds have managed to become big-brained as both young and adults. SEE: Parental Care. Ehrlich, David S.

Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye. In this guide, we recognize the following categories of young: Precocial Hatched with eyes open, covered with down, and leave the nest within two days. There are four levels of precociality, although only three are found in North American birds. Level 1 of development precocial 1 is the pattern found in the chicks of megapodes Australian Malee fowl, Brush Turkeys, etc. The megapode young are incubated in huge piles of decaying vegetation, and upon hatching dig their way out, already well feathered and able to fly. No North American birds show this extreme precociality.

Precocial 2 development is found in ducklings and the chicks of shorebirds, which follow their parents but find their own food. The young of game birds, however, trail after their parents and are shown food; they are classified as precocial 3.

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Precocial 4 development is represented by the young of birds such as rails and grebes, which follow their parents and are not just shown food but are actually fed by them. If all young were divided into only two categories, altricial and precocial, these all would be considered altricial Altricial Hatched with eyes closed, with little or no down, incapable of departing from the nest, and fed by the parents.

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Precocial 1. Precocial 2. Ducks, Plovers. Precocial 3. Quail, Turkey. Precocial 4. Grebes, Rails. Gulls, Terns. Semi-altricial 1.